Lighting Research
at the School of Architecture, University of Sheffield

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Key Articles and Presentations

Interior Lighting

Fotios S, Atli D, Cheal C, Hara N. Lamp spectrum and spatial brightness at photopic levels: Investigating prediction using S/P ratio and gamut area. Lighting Research and Technology August 2015 47: 595-612, first published on July 4, 2014 doi:10.1177/1477153514542295

Lin Y, Fotios S, Wei M, Liu Y, Guo W, Sun Y. Eye movement and pupil size constriction under discomfort glare. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2015; 56(3); 1649-1656. doi:10.1167/iovs.14-15963

Fotios S, Atli D, Cheal C, Houser K, Logadottir A. Lamp Spectrum and Spatial Brightness at Photopic Levels: A basis for developing a metric. Lighting Research & Technology, 2015; 47(1); 80-102. doi:10.1177/1477153513503170

Uttley J, Fotios S, Cheal C. Satisfaction and illuminances set with user-controlled lighting. Architectural Science Review, 2013; 56(4); 306-314. DOI:10.1080/00038628.2012.724380

Ramasoot T and Fotios SA, Lighting and display screens: Models for predicting luminance limits and disturbance, Lighting Research & Technology, 2012; 44(2); 197-223

Fotios S, Lighting in offices: Lamp spectrum and brightness. Coloration Technology, 2011; 127(2): 114-120 (invited article)

Fotios S & Ramasoot T. New lighting recommendations for the Classroom of the Future based on luminous parameters of display screen equipment. Journal of Light and Visual Environment, 2010; 34(3); 165-169

Fotios S & Houser K, Tuning Lamp Spectral Power to Improve the Perception of Interior Spaces, Lux Europa, Istanbul, 2009, 417-422

Fotios S & Ramasoot T, Developing a model to predict user acceptability of display screen reflections, Lux Europa, Istanbul, 2009, 513-520

Ramasoot T & Fotios S, The model of DSE user acceptability and performance: the derivation of new lighting recommendation for the Classroom of the Future. PLEA 2009, Quebec, June 2009, 269-274

Chang CL & Fotios SA, Building design to improve the ease of wayfinding in unfamiliar buildings, Design Principles and Practises, 2009; 3(4); 237-248

Ramasoot T & Fotios SA, Lighting for the Classrooms of the Future. Electronic classrooms: a new challenge for school lighting guidance, Light & Engineering, 2009; 17(2); 62-70, also Svetotekhnika, 2009; 2; 28-34

Ramasoot T & Fotios  SA, Acceptability of screen reflections: lighting strategies for improving quality of the visual environment in classrooms of the future, PLEA 2008, Dublin, October 2008

Ramasoot T & Fotios SA, Lighting for the Classrooms of the Future. Electronic classrooms: a new challenge for school lighting guidance. Balkan Light 2008, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 7–9 October 2008, pp59-68

Fotios SA, Lamp colour properties and apparent brightness: a review, Lighting Research & Technology, 2001; 33(3); 163-181

Fotios SA & Levermore GJ, Chromatic effect on apparent brightness in interior spaces, I: Introduction and colour gamut models, Lighting Research & Technology, 1998; 30(3); 97-102

Fotios SA & Levermore GJ, Chromatic effect on apparent brightness in interior spaces, II: SWS lumens model, Lighting Research & Technology, 1998; 30(3); 103-106

Fotios SA & Levermore GJ, Chromatic effect on apparent brightness in interior spaces, III: Chromatic brightness model, Lighting Research & Technology, 1998; 30(3); 107-110

Fotios SA & Levermore GJ, Perception of electric light sources of different colour properties, Lighting Research & Technology, 1997; 29(3); 161-171

Fotios SA, The perception of light sources of different colour properties, PhD thesis, UMIST (1997)

Fotios SA & Levermore GJ, Visual perception under tungsten lamps with enhanced blue spectrum, Lighting Research & Technology, 1995; 27(4); 173-179
 

Exterior Lighting

Yang B, Fotios S. Lighting and Recognition of Emotion Conveyed by Facial Expressions. Lighting Research & Technology. first published on September 11, 2014 as doi:10.1177/1477153514547753

Dong M, Fotios S, Lin Y. The Influence of Observation Duration and Procedure on Luminance Required for Recognition of Pedestrian’ Faces. Lighting Research & Technology. First published online, June 17, 2014. doi:10.1177/1477153514539781

Fotios S, Yang B, Uttley J. Observing Other Pedestrians: Investigating the Typical Distance and Duration of Fixation. Lighting Research and Technology August 2015 47: 548-564, first published on April 3, 2014 doi:10.1177/1477153514529299

Fotios S, Unwin J, Farrall S. Road lighting and pedestrian reassurance after dark: A review. Lighting Research & Technology, 2015; 47(4) 449-469.. doi:10.1177/1477153514524587

Fotios S, Yang B, Cheal C. Effects of Outdoor Lighting on Judgements of Emotion and Gaze Direction. Lighting Research & Technology, 2015; 47(3); 301-315. doi:10.1177/1477153513510311

Lin Y, Fotios S. Investigating methods for measuring facial recognition under different road lighting conditions. Lighting Research & Technology, 2015; 47(2); 221-235. DOI: 10.1177/1477153513505306

Fotios S, Uttley J, Yang B. Using Eye-Tracking To Identify Pedestrians’ Critical Visual Tasks. Part 2. Fixation on pedestrians. Lighting Research & Technology, 2015; 47(2); 149-160. doi:10.1177/1477153514522473

Fotios S, Uttley J, Cheal C, Hara N. Using Eye-Tracking To Identify Pedestrians’ Critical Visual Tasks. Part 1. Dual Task Approach. Lighting Research & Technology, 2015; 47(2); 133-148. DOI:10.1177/1477153514522472

Lin Y, Fotios S, Wei M, Liu Y, Guo W, Sun Y. Eye movement and pupil size constriction under discomfort glare. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2015; 56(3); 1649-1656. doi:10.1167/iovs.14-15963

CIE report 206:2014. The Effect Of Spectral Power Distribution On Lighting For Urban And Pedestrian Areas. Commission Internationale De L’Éclairage, Vienna, 2014. ISBN 978-3-902842-33-6. Report from TC 4.48.

Fotios S. LRT Digest 1. Maintaining brightness whilst saving energy in residential roads. Lighting Research & Technology research digest, 2013; 45(1); 7-21. DOI: 10.1177/1477153512464141

Fotios S, Cheal C. Using obstacle detection to identify appropriate illuminances for lighting in residential roads. Lighting Research & Technology, 2013; 45(3); 362-376. doi:10.1177/1477153512444112

Fotios S and Goodman T. Proposed UK Guidance for Lighting in Residential Roads. Lighting Research & Technology, 2012; 44(1); 69-83. (see also Corrigendum : 2012; 44(3): 377)

Yang B and Fotios S. Inter-personal Judgements for Pedestrians at Night: Exploring Information Perceived at Different Distances. Ingineria Iluminatului, 2012; 14(1); 31-44

Fotios S, Unwin J and Yang B. Lighting in Residential Roads: What do we need to perceive? Predicting Perceptions: The 3rd International Conference on Appearance. Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, 17-19 April 2012

Unwin J, Fotios S. Does lighting contribute to the reassurance of pedestrians at night-time in residential roads? Ingineria Iluminatului, 2011; 13(2); 29-44.

Fotios SA & Cheal C, Predicting Lamp Spectrum Effects At Mesopic Levels. Part 1: Spatial Brightness, Lighting Research & Technology, 2011; 43(2); 143-157. DOI: 10.1177/1477153510393932

Fotios SA & Cheal C, Predicting Lamp Spectrum Effects At Mesopic Levels. Part 2: Preferred Appearance and Visual Acuity, Lighting Research & Technology, 2011; 43(2); 159-172. DOI: 10.1177/1477153510393933

Fotios S & Raynham P, Correspondence: Lighting for pedestrians: Is facial recognition what matters? Lighting Research & Technology 2011; 43(1): 129-130

Fotios S & Cheal C, Road lighting for pedestrians in residential areas: Choosing the optimum lamp colour characteristics. SELECTED PAPERS of the CIE Light and Lighting Conference with Special Emphasis on LEDs and Solid State Lighting. 27-29 May 2009, Budapest, Hungary, CIE x034:2010. pp 29-38

Fotios S & Cheal C. Predicting Spatial Brightness At Mesopic Levels. Proceedings of CIE 2010 Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency, 14-17 March 2010, Vienna. pp 465-474

Fotios S & Cheal C, Road lighting for pedestrians in residential areas: Choosing the optimum lamp colour characteristics, Light & Engineering, 2010; 18(1); 91-100, and Svetotekhnika, 2009; 6; 28-36

Fotios SA & Cheal C, Obstacle detection: A pilot study investigating the effects of lamp type, illuminance and age, Lighting Research & Technology, 2009; 41(4); 321-342

Boyce PR, Fotios S & Richards M, Road lighting and energy saving, Lighting Research & Technology, 2009: 41(3); 245-260

Fotios S & Cheal C, Lighting Spectrum And Obstacle Detection For Pedestrians, Lux Europa, Istanbul, 2009, 1171-1176

Davoudian N & Fotios S, The Impact of Spatial Characteristics of Background Lighting on the Visual Saliency of Urban Objects, Lux Europa, Istanbul 2009, 1121-1126

Fotios S & Cheal C, Lighting Spectrum and Obstacle Detection for Pedestrians, Proc. of the 6th Lux Pacifica, Bangkok, 23-25 April 2009, pp107-110

Fotios S, Comment on ‘Technical and economic analysis of road lighting solutions based on mesopic vision, Building and Environment, 2009; 44; 2006-2007

Fotios S & Cheal C, Lamp Spectrum, Illuminance and the Pedestrian’s Ability to Detect Obstacles, Lighting Journal, 2008; 73(6); 35-41

ILE Technical Report TR29: White Light.  S Fotios (chairman), N Townsend, M Hooper, K Moss, A Scott & S Austin, 2008

Fotios SA, White Lighting in subsidiary roads: Can it be done and should it be done? ILE Annual Conference, Bristol, 24-26 September 2008

Fotios S & Fisher A, Lighting in Local Roads : A comparison of Guidance in Australia and the UK on lamp colour and illuminance, Lighting Art & Science for International Designers, June 2008, p28-37

Fotios SA & Cheal C, Lighting for subsidiary streets: investigation of lamps of different SPD. Part 2 – Brightness, Lighting Research & Technology, 2007; 39(3); 233-252 (Note: see also Fotios S & Cheal C, Correspondence. Correction: Lighting for subsidiary streets: Investigation of lamps of different SPD. Part 2 – Brightness, Lighting Research & Technology, 2009; 41(4); 381-383)

Fotios SA & Cheal C, Lighting for subsidiary streets: investigation of lamps of different SPD. Part 1 – Visual Performance, Lighting Research & Technology, 2007; 39(3); 215-232

Fotios SA & Cheal C, Limitations to the Application of the White Light Trade-Off in Street Lighting, Lighting Journal, December 2006; 71(6): 24-29

Fotios SA & Boyce PR, Ellis CE, The Effect of Pavement Material on Road Lighting Performance, The Lighting Journal, 2006; 71(2); 35-40

Fotios SA & Cheal C, Designing for white light in subsidiary streets, Urban Nightscape 2006, annual meeting of CIE divisions 4 & 5, Athens, 21-23 September 2006, pp. 42-44

Davoudian N & Fotios SA, Alternatives to brightness for achieving night-time conspicuity, Urban Nightscape 2006, annual meeting of CIE divisions 4 & 5, Athens, 21-23 September 2006, pp. 62-63

Fotios SA, Cheal C & Boyce PR, Light Source Spectrum, Brightness Perception and Visual Performance in Pedestrian Environments: A Review, Lighting Research & Technology, 2005; 37(4); 271-294 (Received the Leon Gaster Award 2006 from the Society for Light & Lighting)

Fotios, S., Boyce, P., and Ellis, C., 2005, The Effect of Road Surface Material on Road Lighting Performance, Report for the Department for Transport, 2005, contract number PPAD 9/100/77

Fotios SA, Boyce PR, & Forster R, The Power Demand of Discharge Lamps Used in Public Lighting, The Lighting Journal, 2005; 70(2); 32-37.

Fotios S and Cheal C, Is white light the right light?, The Lighting Journal, 70(1), 22-25 (2005)

Fotios SA & Cheal C, The white light illuminance trade off permitted in UK design for pedestrian areas: Can it be validated?, x028:2005: Proceedings of the CIE Symposium '05 "Vision and Lighting in Mesopic Conditions", 21 May 2005, Leon, Spain, pp.50-55

Fotios SA, Boyce PR & Forster R, The Power Demand of Discharge Lamps Used in Public Lighting, report for the Department for Transport, October 2004.
 

Experimental Methodology

Fotios S, Uttley J, Cheal C. Maintaining foveal fixation during a peripheral detection task. Lighting Research & Technology . Online first 22/04/2015. doi:10.1177/1477153515583710

Fotios S. Research Note: Uncertainty in subjective evaluation of discomfort glare. Lighting Research & Technology, 2015; 47(3); 379-383. doi:10.1177/1477153515574985

CIE report 212:2014. Guidance Towards Best Practice In Psychophysical Procedures Used When Measuring Relative Spatial Brightness. Commission Internationale De L’Éclairage, Vienna, 2014. ISBN 978-3-902842-51-0.

Logadóttir Á, Fotios SA, Christoffersen J, Hansen SS, Corell DD, Dam Hansen C, Investigating the use of an adjustment task to set preferred colour of ambient illumination, Colour Research & Application, 2013; 38(1); 46-57. DOI: 10.1002/col.20714

Fotios S, Houser K. Using forced choice discrimination to measure the perceptual response to light of different characteristics. Leukos, 2013; 9(4); 245-259

Fotios S and Atli D. Comparing Judgements of Visual Clarity and Spatial Brightness Through an Analysis of Studies Using the Category Rating Procedure. Leukos, 2012; 8(4); 261-281.

Fotios SA, Logadóttir Á, Cheal C, Christoffersen J. Using adjustment to define preferred illuminances: Do the results have any value? Light & Engineering, 2012; 20(2); 46-55

Logadóttir Á, Christoffersen J and Fotios SA. Investigating the use of an adjustment task to set preferred illuminance in a workplace environment. Lighting Research & Technology, 2011; 43(4); 403-422.

Atli D & Fotios S. Rating Spatial Brightness: Does The Number Of Response Categories Matter? Ingineria Iluminatului, 2011; 13(1); 15-28.

Fotios SA & Cheal C, Brightness Matching With Visual Fields Of Different Types, Lighting Research & Technology, 2011; 43(1); 73-85

Fotios SA & Cheal C, Stimulus range bias explains the outcome of preferred-illuminance adjustments. Lighting Research & Technology, 2010; 42(4): 433-447.

Fotios SA & Cheal C, A Comparison of Simultaneous and Sequential Brightness Judgements. Lighting Research & Technology, 2010; 42(2): 183-197.

Fotios S, Houser K, Cheal C & Royer M. A Comparison Of Simultaneous And Sequential Evaluations Of Spatial Brightness Suggests The Pupil Size Mechanism Is Not Responsible For Spatial Brightness. CIE 2010 Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency, 14-17 March 2010, Vienna. pp 428-438

Fotios S & Cheal C. Stimulus Range Bias And Estimates Of Preferred Illuminance. CIE 2010 Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency, 14-17 March 2010, Vienna. pp 525-532

Houser KW, Fotios SA, Royer MP.  A Test of the S/P Ratio as a Correlate for Brightness Perception using Rapid-Sequential and Side-by-Side Experimental Protocols. Leukos, 2009: 6(2); 119-137

Fotios SA & Houser K, Tuning the spectrum of lighting to enhance spatial brightness: Investigations of research methods. Experiencing Light 2009. Eindhoven, 41-52

Fotios S & Houser K, Tuning the spectrum to match human vision: An opportunity for LED arrays CIE Light & Lighting conference, Budapest, 27-29 May 2009

Fotios S & Houser K, Visual Effects of Lamp Spectrum: the Perception of Interior Spaces, Proc. of the 6th Lux Pacifica, Bangkok, 23-25 April 2009, pp13-16

Fotios SA & Houser KW, Research Methods to Avoid Bias in Categorical Ratings of Brightness, Leukos, 2009; 5(3); 167-181

Fotios S & Houser K, Measuring Lamp SPD Affect on the Perception of Interior Spaces: Frequently This is Misleading. Balkan Light 2008, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 7–9 October 2008, pp69-78

Fotios SA, Houser KW & Cheal C, Counterbalancing Needed to Avoid Bias in Side-By-Side Brightness Matching Tasks, Leukos, 2008: 4(4); 207-223

Fotios SA & Cheal C, The Effect of a Stimulus Frequency Bias in Side-By-Side Brightness Ranking Tests, Lighting Research & Technology, 2008; 40(1); 43-54

Fotios SA & Cheal C, Evidence For Response Contraction Bias In Side-By-Side Matching Tasks, Lighting Research & Technology, 2007; 39(2); 159-169

Fotios SA, Chromatic adaptation and the relationship between lamp spectrum and brightness, Lighting Research & Technology, 2006; 38(1); 3-17

Fotios S & Gado T, A comparison of visual objectives used in side-by-side matching tests, Lighting Research & Technology, 2005; 37(2); 117-131

Fotios SA, Experimental conditions to examine the relationship between lamp colour properties and apparent brightness, Lighting Research & Technology, 2002; 34(1); 29-38

Fotios SA, An error in brightness matching associated with the application of dimming, Lighting Research & Technology, 2001; 33(4); 223-231

Fotios SA, An investigation into the relationship between luminance and brightness of strongly chromatic light sources by K van Creveld, Lighting Research & Technology, 2000; 32(4); 234-235